Mapuloteni vs. Mavuto Aimpso: Kodi Mumafunikiradi Mapuloteni Ochuluka Ngatiwo?

Nthawi Yowerenga: 8 mphindi

Mapuloteni ndi ma molekyulu a organic (omwe amapangidwa kwambiri ndi mpweya, mpweya, haidrojeni ndi nayitrogeni, ndipo atha kukhala ndi zinthu zina, monga sulufule momwe zimapangidwira) zopangidwa ndi zinthu zoyambira zotchedwa ma amino acid. Izi zili ngati njerwa zomwe zimapanga khoma, motero ndi mapuloteni. Zomwe zilipo m'njira zosiyanasiyana, ma amino acid osakanikirana (ndipo nditha kunena kuti kuphatikiza kumeneku kumakhala kopanda malire, chifukwa kumamvera DNA ya munthu wapadera), m'magulu osiyanasiyana ndipo, kumene, ntchito, mapuloteni ndizofunikira kwambiri ya moyo, popeza nthawi zambiri imakhala.

impso

Kunena zamankhwala, kapangidwe ka amino acid, kameneka, ndimagulu amine, gulu la carboxyl, lomwe nthawi zambiri limaphatikizidwa ndi kaboni wapakati, kapena alpha, ndi gulu loyandikira, kapena lopitilira muyeso.
Thupi lathu limatha kupanga mapuloteni molingana ndi DNA yathu komanso chifukwa cha njira zomwe zimalola kuti izi zichitike, monga mapuloteni kaphatikizidwe, ndiye kupitiriza ndi moyo. Komabe, si mapuloteni okha omwe amatha kupangidwa m'thupi la munthu, koma kuti izi zichitike, ndikofunikira kuti titha kupanga ma amino acid. Pakati pa 20 ma amino acid akuluakulu, 11 amaonedwa kuti ndi osafunika, ndiko kuti, tikhoza kupanga, pamene 9 otsala, omwe amadziwika kuti ndi ofunika kwambiri amino acid, sitingathe.
As mapuloteni ntchito, m'malamulo amoyo, ndi ambiri, popeza, monga tanenera kale, ndi omwe amapanga. Komabe, polankhula makamaka za thupi la munthu, ntchito zake ndizosatheka kuti zifotokozedwe bwino, komabe, pakati pazikuluzikulu, titha kutchula malamulo apakompyuta, magwero amagetsi, ma enzyme, omwe ndi mapuloteni, malamulo amadzimadzi ena ndi zotsekemera, ntchito zokhudzana ndi mahomoni, zotumiza zinthu zambiri zakunja, kapangidwe kathupi ndi ziwalo, nthawi zina mphamvu yamagetsi, kuwonongeka mankhwala ena etc.. Chifukwa chake, monga tikuonera, mapuloteni amalumikizana mwachindunji ndi mitsempha yamatenda Mwambiri ndipo ndizovuta kutchula, ngati mukufuna njira yamagetsi yomwe mwanjira ina siyikuphatikiza mapuloteni kapena ma amino acid.
Komabe, kuphatikiza ma amino acid kapena mapuloteni, zikuwoneka kuti payenera kukhala gawo lakale, ndiye kuti, ngakhale tili ndi zinthu zokwanira zopangira mankhwalawa, ayenera kuti anali ochokera kwina, makamaka ngati tilingalira kukhalapo kwa nayitrogeni m'maproteni omwe amachokera. Popeza thupi lathu Sizimayamwa mapuloteni, koma ma amino acid (ndipo amino acid okha ndi omwe amagwera m'magazi), chifukwa chake titha kunena kuti izi zidachokera ku chakudya chomwe, mwa njira, chikuwoneka kuti ndichofunikira kwambiri pazovuta zina zomwe zimakhudza mapuloteni ndi njira zawo zamagetsi.
Ndizosakayikitsa kuti fayilo ya kumwa mapuloteni ndikofunikira kwa moyo. Ngakhale ndizochepa bwanji, ziyenera kukhalapo. Ndipo, chifukwa cha izi, zikuwonekeratu kuti sitingalephere kuphunzira momwe tingagwiritsire ntchito mapuloteni oterewa, kuchuluka kwake komanso nthawi yanji. kafukufuku wa anthu wamba, kapena magulu ena okhudzana ndi kumwa mapuloteni.
Pali malingaliro angapo omwe alipo masiku ano, aliyense malinga ndi chinthu: fuko, kuchuluka kwa masewera olimbitsa thupi, kadyedwe ka anthu, zaka, kulemera, kusapezeka kapena kupezeka kwa mtundu wina wa matenda, etc. Koma kwa ife omanga thupi, chimene chili chofunika kwambiri ngakhale m’kati mwa nkhaniyi ndicho kuyamikira kwathu, sichoncho? Chabwino… Apa ndi pamene vuto limayamba ndipo, ndinganene, mkangano nawonso.
Malangizowa alipo kuti titha kudzikhazika pawokha osapitilira zomwe timafunikira ndipo, nthawi yomweyo, samalephera kupereka michere yoyenera. Ndi chifukwa, zakudya zilizonse zomwe zimadya zopitilira muyeso, zidzabweretsa zovulaza, komanso kusowa, zidzabweretsanso zofooka ndi zofooka zomwe zingakhale zovuta kwambiri. Makamaka pankhani ya mapuloteni, amapanga zinthu zomaliza mu metabolism zomwe zimakhala poizoni kwambiri m'thupi, makamaka ku thupi. ubongoammonia (yomwe imafunikanso kutulutsidwa pambuyo posinthidwa kambirimbiri kukhala kuzungulira wa urea). Pankhani ya kuchepa Choncho, mitengo ya imfa ya minofu, fupa la mafupa ndipo ngakhale kupanga mahomoni kungachepe.
Lero analimbikitsa anthu aku Brazil Ponena za kudya mapuloteni pafupifupi Mapuloteni 0,8-1,0g / kg, ngakhale kuti pang'onopang'ono izi zikusinthidwa kukhala zokulirapo, makamaka chifukwa cha mitundu ya zakudya zomwe anthu athu ali nazo (kwambiri "hyperproteic"). Kulamulira ndi mpunga ndi nyemba palokha, amene ali wolemera mu mapuloteni, zidutswa za nyama, kudya zizolowezi zokhudza kudya mkaka komanso nyama (mbale Brazil ayenera kukhala ndi mtundu wina wa nyama, chirichonse), inu mukuganiza kuti n'zosatheka. kutsatira malangizowa. Komabe, kodi izi zimapangitsa anthu a ku Brazil kukhala odwala? Ngati tiganizira kuti mayiko ena amadya zomanga thupi zochulukirapo kuposa zomwe timadya, ndiye kuti tiyerekeze kuti ndalamazi ndizokwera kwambiri, komabe, sizingaganizidwe ngati anthu odwala. Ndikunena izi chifukwa, pamaso pa okayikira zakudya zachikale, kupitilira kuchulukaku kungathe mwachiwonekere (ndinganene mokayikira) kusokoneza ntchito za impso, kugwira ntchito kwa chiwindi, kusokoneza ma enzymes a chiwindi, kumayambitsa kusalinganika kwa impso. concentração za urea zomwe zidzatulutsidwa ndi zina zotero ...
Koma, tiyeni timvetsetse momwe njirayi imagwiritsidwira ntchito m'njira yosavuta komanso wamba:
Gawo loyamba mutatha kudya mapuloteni ndi anu chimbudzi, kapena njira ya hydrolysis, yomwe imayamba m'mimba chifukwa cha pH ndi pepsin, yomwe ndi enzyme yoyamba ya proteolytic. Pambuyo pake, ma peptide adapita ku duodenum, dzulo apitiliza kupukutidwa ndi ma enzyme ena monga trypsin, carboxypeptidases, elastase ndi chymotrypsin. Mukadutsa m'matumbo ang'onoang'ono, ma amino acid amakhala ndi mwayi wolowa m'magazi atadutsa m'makina a enterocyte. Komano ma dipeptides ndi ma tripeptides, adakali ndi hydrolysis mkati mwa ma enterocyte, asanakwane mtundu wa amino acid wamagazi.
Izi amino acid zimadutsa munthawi zambiri zomwe zimakhudzana ndi zomwe timatcha "protein turn over", ndiye kuti mapuloteni kaphatikizidwe ndi njira zowononga za thupi lathu zomwe zimachitika nthawi zonse. Ma amino acid omwe sagwiritsidwa ntchito, komabe, azikhala okosijeni, pochita njira yotchedwa transamination, kapena kuchotsa amino radical.
Izi zimasinthidwa kupita ku α-ketoglutarate kudzera mu aminotransferase, ndikupanga glutamate. Glutamate iyi, ndi mtundu wina wa "ammonia collector", womwe ungagwire ntchito popanga ma amino acid ena, momwe maunyolo a kaboni amatha kupita kunjira zina zambiri. Kutengera njira yomwe, kapangidwe kameneka kangalowe m'magawo osiyanasiyana a citric acid cycle, yopezedwanso ndi Krebs. Njirayi ndiyofunikira chifukwa, mwa ena, imathandizanso kutulutsa amoniya mthupi (pafupifupi 30-40g / tsiku) ikalumikizidwa ndi kuzungulira kwa urea. Timatulutsa, ammonia mu mawonekedwe a urea, popeza molekyuluyi imasungunuka kwambiri, motero imafuna madzi ochepa. Kuti ammonia asandulike kukhala urea, amino radical kuphatikiza ndi CO2 molekyulu, amapanga citrulline, yomwe isandulike arginosuccinate, yomwe ingatsatire njira ya citric acid yoyenda ngati fumarate kapena cyclode ya urea ngati arginine kenako ornithine kupitilizabe kuzungulira kapena urea, kuti amasulidwe.
Chifukwa chake, monga tikuonera, mapuloteni owonjezera sizingatenge nawo gawo pakukonzanso kwamapuloteni kapena sizitengera kuti minofu izikhala yayikulu kwambiri, koma izikhala ndi oxidized, yopanga mphamvu ndipo, mwa ena, itha kusandulidwanso Thupi la mafuta (Mosiyana ndi zomwe anthu ena amaganiza, mapuloteni akhoza INDE kusinthidwa ndikusungidwa mthupi ngati mafuta.).

Malinga ndi kafukufuku waposachedwa, wofalitsidwa pa ISSN, the kumwa 2g / kg wa mapuloteni kwa ochita zolimbitsa thupi zolimbitsa thupi komanso/kapena zolimbitsa thupi sizinangowoneka kuti sizowopsa kwa thupi la munthu, komanso sizinawonetse zovuta zilizonse zaumoyo. M'malo mwake, kuchuluka kumeneku sikofunikira kwenikweni makamaka kwa ochita masewera olimbitsa thupi, koma anthu wamba omwe amafuna magrecimento ndi kukhala zakudya otsika mu glycides, anthu omwe ali ndi matenda monga HIV ndi ena. Ndiyenera kunena kuti ngakhale kafukufuku wokhala ndi zikhalidwe zapamwamba kwambiri kuposa izi adapeza zotsatira zabwino popanda kuwonetsa Zotsatira zoyipa.
Kodi zikutanthauza kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mapuloteni kuyenera kukhala kokwanira ndi ochita masewera olimbitsa thupi? Tiyeni tisinthe chifukwa ndi pomwe anthu ambiri amapeza idyani mapuloteni kuposa malingaliro amtsiku ndi tsiku ndi idyani mapuloteni mwamphamvu, potero zimawononga thanzi. Ngakhale palibe mgwirizano womwe ungatiuze Kodi kuchuluka kwa mapuloteni kumadya ndi chiyani?, chifukwa, kuwonjezera pakuyankhula za malingaliro apadera kwa othamanga omwe ayenera kuti adapangidwa mwawokha ndikuwongoleredwa ndi akatswiri, tikudziwa kuti zomwe zili zoyipa sizomwe zimakulira zochulukirapo kuposa zomwe zikulimbikitsidwa, koma zochuluka zomwe zimaposa zosowa zanu.
Mwachibadwidwe, womanga thupi wolakwika watsopano yemwe amalowa mu masewera olimbitsa thupi kuti kupeza misa minofu, mukhoza kuyamba kumvetsera ena akale masewero olimbitsa thupi fudge kapena kuyamba wanu "za sayansi" kudzera magwero osadalirika a chidziwitso. Izi zingakupangitseni kuchita zomwe ambiri amachita: "Idyani mapuloteni muzakudya!", kutanthauza kuti, munthu yemwe nthawi zambiri amadya nyama imodzi patsiku, amayamba kudya 1 kapena 3, amawonjezera tchizi, mkaka, mazira, nyama zina ngakhalenso. gulani mphika wa hydrolyzed protein ufa kuti mutenge mukamaliza kulimbitsa thupi. Kumene, Kupweteka m'mimba, kusokonezeka m'mimba komanso kuwonongeka kwa chiwindi kapena impso. Kuphatikiza apo, kafukufuku wina amagwiritsanso ntchito kusowa kwa mowa (kuwerenga kwambiri) ndi kuwonjezeka kwa prolactin. Izi ndichifukwa choti womanga zolimbitsa thupi wapakati kapena ngakhale amene safuna kuchita bwino kwambiri, amafunikira dongosolo labwino lazakudya lomwe limagwirizana ndi cholinga chake NDI PA NTHAWI YOMWEYO NDI ZOFUNIKIRA ZAOYO, ndiko kuti, osati kukokomeza kapena kuchuluka poyerekeza ndi wothamanga wodziwa bwino yemwe, pakadali pano, adzafunika kuchuluka kwama Micro ndi macronutrients ochulukirapo kuposa malingaliro amtundu wonse. Monga tanenera, munthu wopeza ndalama zambiri amawononga zochulukirapo chifukwa thupi lake limafunikira ndalamazi ndipo sadzawononga kapena kuwononga. Kuti mutenge matenda oopsa muscular, mapuloteni sizinthu zokha zomwe zingasokoneze: Popanda kuchuluka kolondola kwa chakudya, lipids, micronutrients, madzi, maphunziro olemetsa komanso osasinthasintha, kupuma kokwanira, ma hormone ndi thanzi labwino ndi zinthu zina, tidzatha kudya mapuloteni ambiri momwe tingathere ndipo, ngakhale zili choncho, sitidzakhala ndi zotsatira zabwino. .
Tsopano talingalirani impso ndi chiwindi kuyenera kugwira ntchito nthunzi yathunthu kuti athe kusamalira ntchito yayikulu iyi ndikusintha kwa ammonia, komanso kutulutsa kwake. Zachidziwikire, makina omwe amayendetsa maola 24 patsiku kupitirira mphamvu zomwe adapangidwira amakhala ndi nthawi yayitali kuposa omwe amayendetsa maola 10 kapena 12 patsiku, kapena maola 24 omwewo, koma ndi ntchito yocheperako.
Ndiyenera kunena kuti, nthawi zambiri, tikamalankhula za anthuwa ndipo akufunafuna a wazakudya, amangoganiza kuti ndi oyenerera kugwira ntchito ndi akatswiri a masewera olimbitsa thupi, pamene kwenikweni katswiri wa zachipatala akanatha kukwaniritsa zosowa zawo. Koma…Ngakhale izi zili choncho, sizachilendo kuona omenyera nkhondo ena ali pantchito akudzudzula akatswiri azakudya ponena kuti sikofunikira kudya zomanga thupi zopitirira 1,5g/kg. SKEPTICS, KUMBUKIRANI: WOPEREKA KWA ZAKUDYA AMAPEREKA MAVOMEREZO OYESEDWA PAMENE AKUGWIRA NTCHITO PAGULU. CHIFUKWA CHAKE, KUZIPEREKA PANTHAWI IYI KUTI MUZIKHALA PA MAVOMEREZO OYENERA KUKHALA ACHINYAMATA NDI CHOLAKWA CHABWINO!
Mapuloteni ndi kudya kwa mapuloteni kuyenera kukhala molingana ndi cholinga chachikulu cha mapuloteni mu hypertrophy, omwe makamaka, kuwonjezera pa magwiridwe antchito azolimbitsa thupi, amakhala ngati gawo la mapuloteni owonjezera ndikupangitsa kuti minofu ipindule. Koma, kumbukirani kuti pali malire pakulipirira kumeneku, ndipo malirewa amathyoledwa tsiku ndi tsiku malinga ndi kupita patsogolo kwathu osati usiku umodzi wokha. Kupanda kutero, tikuchulukitsa thupi lathu. Kaya ndi wochita masewera olimbitsa thupi kapena wamasewera yemwe safuna mpikisano, njira yabwino kwambiri ndiyabwino kudya, ndiye kuti, zakudya zabwino, zosiyanasiyana komanso zopatsa thanzi.
Komabe,
Palibe nyundo yomwe ingagundidwe ngati kuchuluka kwa mapuloteni omwe amayenera kudyedwa. Palibe chomwe chingatsimikizire kuti kumwa "mapuloteni" kwambiri kungakhale kovulaza, makamaka, mwina, kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti kumwa izi pamwambapa, monga osakokomeza, kungathandizenso nthawi zina. Komabe, zimadziwika kuti izi ziyenera kukhala mogwirizana ndi zosowa za munthu aliyense (makamaka iwo omwe ali ndi matenda amtundu wina kapena kusokonekera kwa kagayidwe kachakudya), osangokhalira kumwa mopitirira muyeso, koma ndi chakudya choyenera moyenera.

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